Veterinary Obstetrics




Scientist (Animal Reproduction)

ICAR-National Research Centre on Yak

Dirang, Arunachal Pradesh, India


Cell: +91-9401274039


1.      Prolonged dystocia leads to fatigue of the uterine muscle and produce contraction or retraction rings called as

a.      Bandl’s ring

b.      Schaafer’s ring

c.       Robert’s ring

d.      Uterine ring


2.      The incidence of dystocia in posterior presentation of fetus in unipara is

a.       Low

b.      High

c.      Absent

d.      Moderate


3.      Primary uterine inertia is seen most often in which species?

a.       Mare

b.      Sow

c.       Ewe

d.      Bitch


4.      Hydrocephalus in cattle is frequently associated with deformed

a.       Muscles

b.      Head

c.       Limbs

d.      Viscera


5.      Small litter size leads to cause larger fetuses that may predispose to dystocia in

a.       Ewe

b.      Goat

c.       Bitch

d.      Sow


6.      In cat dystocia may be due to postural abnormalities of head and neck and

a.      Breech presentation

b.      Wry neck

c.       Dog sitting posture

d.      Hip-lock condition


7.      .Obstetrical hooks may be long or short but should always be

a.       Sharp

b.      Blunt

c.       Pointed

d.      Straight


8.      Williams, Guard’s and Ames are different types

a.       Obstetrical hooks

b.      Chain

c.       Knives

d.      Chisel


9.      Repulsion may be accomplished by the operator’s arm, the arm of an assistant or by a

a.       Fetotome

b.      Obstetrical chain

c.       Ropes

d.      Crutch repeller


10.  The corneas are grey and opaque after the fetus has been dead for

a.       12-24 hours

b.      24-48 hours

c.       6 to 12 hours

d.      48-72 hours


11.  Version is most often done while transverse ventral presentation in

a.       Queen

b.      Mare

c.       Buffalo

d.      Sow


12.  Dystocia caused by the cord being wrapped around a portion or extremity of fetus

a.       Frequently occurs in domestic animals

b.      Frequently causes dystocia

c.       Does not occurs in domestic animals

d.      Frequently causes fetal dead in domestic animals


13.   The uterine twisting of the birth canal is often not noticeable in

a.      90 degree torsion

b.      180 degree torsion

c.       270 degree torsion

d.      360 degree torsion


14.  Detruncation in anterior presentation is indicated in rare instances when the fetus is in a

a.      Dog sitting posture

b.      Nape presentation

c.       Breech presentation

d.      Wry neck


15.  Downward deviation of the head between the forelimb is occasionally seen in all species except

a.       Mare

b.      Ewe

c.       Sow

d.      Bitch


16.  The turning of the fetus on its long axis to bring the fetus into dorso-sacral position is called

a.       Repulsion

b.      Rotation

c.       Version

d.      Adjustment of extremities


17.  Williams long cutting hook with a blunt point is very useful for cutting

a.      Ribs

b.      Muscles

c.       Ligaments

d.      Joints


18.  When fetal emphysema and sloughing of the hair is present the fetus has been dead for

a.      24-48 hours

b.      6-12 hours

c.       12-24 hours

d.      48 hours or more


19.  Cesarean section is more difficult to perform in which species in comparison to other domestic animals

a.       Sow

b.      Bitch

c.       Mare

d.      Ewe


20.  Fetal ascities is seen as an occasional cause for dystocia in any species but occurs most often in

a.       Mare

b.      Sow

c.       Cow

d.      bitch


21.  Perosomus elumbis if occurs in posterior presentation may be mistaken for

a.      Breech presentation

b.      Dog sitting posture

c.       Vertex presentation

d.      Wry neck


22.  The symptom of ketosis in cow occurs as

a.      Digestive and nervous form

b.      Nervous and Urinary form

c.       Genital and Nervous form

d.      Digestive and Reproductive form


23.  The condition of obturator paralysis is

a.      More prevalent in heifers than in cows

b.      More prevalent in cows than in heifers

c.       Commonly prevalent in both cows and heifers

d.      Not prevalent in heifers and cows


24.  Most common type of ketosis after parturition in cow is

a.      Primary spontaneous

b.      Primary nutritional

c.       Secondary ketosis

d.      Secondary nutritional


25.  Puerperal tetany or eclampsia in the bitch and cat is a metabolic disease characterized by

a.       Hypoglycemia

b.      Hyperglycemia

c.       Hypocalcemia

d.      Hypercalcemia


26.  During Parturient paresis in cow the blood serum calcium level drops from a normal of 8-12g/100 ml to

a.      3-7g/100ml

b.      Less than 2g/100ml

c.       8-10g/100 ml

d.      Less than 1g/100 ml


27.  Gluteal paralysis is rare and is described only in

a.      Mare

b.      Cow

c.       Sow

d.      Ewe


28.  Hematomas and contusions of the vagina or the vulva are occasionally noted in all animals but most commonly in

a.       Bitch and Queen

b.      Sow and Bitch

c.       Cow and Ewe

d.      Mare and Sow


29.  Severe bleeding from the uterus of large animals may be controlled by

a.       Prolactin

b.      Oxytocin

c.       Progesterone

d.      Gonadotropin


30.  The volume of lochia from bovine uterus during first 48 hours of parturition is about

a.       500-800 ml

b.      100-500 ml

c.       2000-2500ml

d.      1400-1600 ml


31.  Hysterectomy is often considered in dogs and cats with a prolonged dystocia of

a.       6-12 hrs

b.      12-18 hrs

c.       18-24 hrs

d.      24-36 hrs


32.  In most cows the presence of very relaxed ligaments indicates that parturition will probably occurs in

a.       6 to 12 hrs

b.      12 to 18 hrs

c.       18 to 24 hrs

d.      24 to 48 hrs


33.  The occurrence of wry neck is common in equine fetuses developing

a.       In posterior presentation

b.      In anterior presentation

c.       Transversely

d.      In all presentations


34.  At birth what is the approximate percentage of birth weight of foal in relation to the mature weight

a.       4 per cent

b.      6 per cent

c.       9 per cent

d.      Less than 2 per cent


35.  Of farm animals which animal born in the most advanced stage of physiological development

a.      Foal

b.      Calf

c.       Piglet

d.      Lamb


36.  High feeding levels may favour dystocia, especially in heifers by excessive deposition of fat in the

a.       Abdominal region

b.      Genitalia

c.       Pelvic region

d.      Uterine horn


37.   Secondary uterine inertia that is seen in all species is the result of

a.       Nutritional deficiency

b.      Fetal oversize

c.       Exhaustion of uterine muscle

d.      Hormonal imbalance


38.  Manual removal of the placenta is contraindicated in cows with elevated body temperature above

a.       101 degree F

b.      102 degree F

c.       103 degree F

d.      Not contraindicated


39.  If the placenta is not expelled in 12-24 hours an acute metritis may result and unless treated early or hysterectomy performed, it is usually fatal in

a.      4 to 5 days

b.      1 to 2 days

c.       5 to 7 days

d.      1 to 2 weeks


40.   Necrotic vaginitis and vulvitis is observed most often in

a.       Mare

b.      Sow

c.       Bitch and queens

d.      Dairy and beef heifers


41.  The symptoms of necrotic vagnitis are usually observed after how many days of parturition?

a.      1 to 4 days

b.      Immediately after parturition

c.       4 to 7 days

d.      After 1 week


42.  Almost all severe dystocia occurs in heifers with with pelvic area of

a.      200 to 240 sq. cm.

b.      250 to 270 sq. cm.

c.       270 to 290 sq. cm.

d.      290 to 320 sq. cm.


43.  Clam shell forceps are used to relieve dystocia in

a.       Queen

b.      Sow

c.       Ewe

d.      Bitch


44.  The technique of epidural anesthesia was introduced by Benesch in

a.       1935

b.      1926

c.       1944

d.      1966


45.  In which animals partial embryotomy is often indicated before version is attempted in transverse ventral presentation

a.       Cow

b.      Mare

c.       Sow

d.      Ewe


46.  In which species abdominal contractions are so violent that if the fetus is in proper presentation, position and posture, forced extraction is seldom necessary?

a.       Feline

b.      Swine

c.       Equine

d.      Bovine


47.  A complication of rather diffuse bleeding occurring from the submucosal area of the uterus after incising during cesarean section occurs in

a.       Bovine

b.      Equine

c.       Swine

d.      Feline


48.  Transverse ventral presentation is most commonly observed in

a.      Mare

b.      Cow

c.       Sow

d.      Bitch


49.  True fetal gigantism is seen most commonly in

a.      Cow

b.      Mare

c.       Bitch

d.      Sow


50.  Schistosoma reflexus is seen in cow and occasionally in sheep, goat and pig but

a.       Rarely in other species

b.      Never in other species

c.       Frequently in other species

d.      Very common in other species